Genetic factors: esophageal cancer has a significant family aggregation phenomenon. It is common in families with three or more generations of disease in high incidence areas, but there is absolutely no inheritance of esophageal cancer, which is closely related to family eating habits.
Nitrosamines: nitrosamines are a strong carcinogen. Studies have shown that there are methylbenzylnitrosamines, nitrosopyrrolidine and nitrosoguanidine in gastric juice and urine of residents who eat pickled cabbage in high incidence area of esophageal cancer. It was found that consumption of sour vegetables was directly proportional to the incidence rate of esophageal cancer.
Trace elements and malnutrition: the levels of serum molybdenum, hair molybdenum, urine molybdenum and esophageal cancer tissue molybdenum were lower than normal. In the high incidence area of esophageal cancer, there is a lack of molybdenum in water and soil, and the anti-cancer effect of molybdenum has been confirmed by most scholars. Malnutrition, insufficient intake of animal protein and vitamin A, B2, C deficiency are the common characteristics of the diet of residents in high-risk areas of esophageal cancer.
Esophageal mucosal damage: long term like hot food, coarse food, drink strong tea, eat pepper and other irritating food, can cause esophageal mucosal damage, cause esophageal mucosal hyperplasia, may also be one of the carcinogenic factors. Smoking and drinking alcohol are related to the incidence of esophageal cancer. All kinds of chronic esophagitis may be precancerous lesions of esophageal cancer.
Mold carcinogenic factors: moldy food can induce precancerous lesions or squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus and stomach in mice. This kind of mold has synergistic effect with nitrosamine.